Traditionally, a tragedy is divided into five acts.
The first act introduces the characters in a state of happiness, or at the height of their power, influence, or fame.
The second act typically introduces a problem or dilemma, which reaches a point of crisis in the third act, but which can still be successfully averted.
In the fourth act, the main characters fail to avert or avoid the impending crisis or catastrophe, and disaster occurs.
The fifth act traditionally reveals the grim consequences of that failure.
According to Aristotle, tragedy necessarily involves: hamartia, catastrophe, hubris, anagnorisis, peripeteia, and catharsis.Hamartia: A term from Greek tragedy that literally means "missing the mark." Hamartia came to signify a tragic flaw, especially a misperception, a lack of some important insight, or some willful blindness that ironically results from one's own strengths and abilities. In Greek tragedy, the protagonist frequently possesses some sort of fatal flaw that causes catastrophic results after he fails to recognize some fact or truth that could have saved him if he recognized it earlier.
Catastrophe: The "turning downward" or the beginning of a decline in fortunes in the plot in a classical tragedy. One might also refer to is as a spiral of decline.
Hubris: It is a negative term implying both arrogant, excessive self-pride or self-confidence, and also a hamartia, a lack of some important perception or insight and self-awareness due to pride in one's abilities.“He who climbs upon the highest mountains laughs at all tragedies, real or imaginary.”
Friedrich NietzscheIt is the opposite of the Greek term arête, which implies a humble and constant striving for perfection and self-improvement combined with a realistic awareness that such perfection cannot be reached. As long as an individual strives to do and be the best, that individual has arête.